Have you tried using the Samsung galaxy app on windows 10 it should have your saved information from your phone and should be able to download them that way? Also you would need to make sure that your cloud sync settings were turned on on your phone to be able to share across the devices. You can use the link below for more information.
About how to transfer your photos from your Samsung Gallery to your Windows 10 laptop, can't you do that via usb cable connecting? If no, try Coolmuster Android Backup Manager. Its free backup function can help us back up photos from Samsung Gallery to Windows 10 PC directly via usb cable connecting. Just have a try.