I SOLVED IT!!!
I had been living with no font colours on my phone for 4 years and never knew the reason. I got a new phone and this setting transferred to it from the old one, so I was finally sure that this is a setting and not a bug.
Go to Settings > Accessibility > Visibility Enhancements
and turn OFF "High contrast fonts".
I don't know why this was ever on for my phone but that is what had been keeping my phone from displaying font colours properly.