I solved my problem after reading all the above and trying almost everything, I only have the one cable..
In Device Manager under Portable Devices I kept seeing this MTP Device problem and all the drivers I tried would not work. Eventually I right clicked on the failed MTP device and chose Update Driver Software/Browse my Computer/Let me pick from a list of devices. In the pop up list there was 1 MTP Device and 2 MTP USB Devices. I chose the 2nd MTP USB Device in the list (perhaps the first would of done the same), then clicked next. Suddenly as if by magic the failed MTP device in Device Manager changed to My Galaxy S10e and the phone appeard in File Manager.