If a factory reset helped at all that would indicate a software issue. My guess would have been 100% a hardware failure. I'm going to go out on a limb here and take a guess since it's not really possible to be software, since we all get the same updates when it comes to hardware controllers and basic device functionality. I'm thinking your battery is on its way out or your phone sees it as unsafe for big power in or out and is locking you out of being able to do these things you mentioned. There are many battery failsafes and protections that could easily disable your ability to fast charge or data transfer. Can you try fast charging wirelessly? See what it does on a wireless fast charger that supports the S22 Ultra's 15w wireless charging.
Either that or your USB controller is faulty and you'll need to operate on her and replace the board that the USB-C port sits on.
These are just guesses as that's a very unique issue you're having.
Also try booting up safe mode and see if it charges fast, then you can rule out any malicious software or apps that with your phone.