Here is what I did after trying everything in this thread that did not work. On my phone the Voicemail App was the normal icon with a red background. I went into Settings - Application Info - Voicemail - More (Upper right hand corner) - Uninstall. It asked if I wanted to take the app back to a factory install and I said yes. Instead of the red background Voicemail App I now have a blue background. And I now receive voicemail notifications. I think it was an outdated app but I was not able to get to the right spot to update it.
I am using a J7 that started life as a pre-paid phone with Verizon, then converted to a standard plan. I spent hours talking with various levels within Verizon support by phone and onlline. I then contacted Samsung and neither company offered any help. The missing Verizon VoiceMail program is an app but the one in the PlayStore is incompatible with the J7 op system that I have. So, as a last ditch effeor I went to a Verizon store in Allen, TX and had Nick help me.
After a lot of frustration on his part, a lightbulb went off and he solved the problem for me. He activated a Google Phone Number for me then downloaded the Google VoiceMail app on my phone. He then (somehow) connected it with my Verizon number so when a call comes into my phone on the Verizon phone number, the phone rings and I can answer it as normal.
If I do not answer it, then it is somehow passed through to Google which updates an icon on my home screen to show a call was missed and then initiates Google Voice Mail. The message is recorded and transcribed and the GVM icon on my home screen is updated to show that I have a waiting voice mail message. Sorry that I did not get the details of the connection between Verizon and Google to help you, but maybe you can research this missing piece and fix the problem on your phone as well.