I saw a post concerning the S9, but no solution until a good ways into the thread, and a search for "Note8" and "VisionProvider" gave no results, so in the interest of helping others, I'm passing this along.
For full details, I have a Note8 on Verizon and all updates installed.
The app VisionProvider is used by Bixby, and sometimes it will accumulate a LOT of data - so much so that your phone storage may be completely used up. I have a Note8 with 64GB storage, and I did not have much media. I removed several gigabytes of what I did have, and the phone was back to 99% full the next day. I cleared the cache, removed unneeded apps, etc., and I was still out of space. Then I found the problem.
Go to Settings / Apps, go to the menu (three dots) and select Show system apps, and find "VisionProvider". Tap Storage. The list will show how much data is being used. If it's more than a few MB, tap Clear data. Mine was 22.5GB. Be aware - it may take several minutes to clear.
Since this is classified as data rather than cache, it's not removed by cleaners, and it's not removed even by deleting the cache partition. And since it's classified as a system app, it's hidden unless you specifically show it. But once you know, it's easy to fix.
This seems to have been a problem for several years and with different versions of Android. Hopefully Samsung will fix the app, since most users won't have the technical expertise to figure it out - or to look in the Samsung Community for a solution.